Introduction A spectrophotometer measures the amount of light absorbed by a solution at different wavelengths of light emitted. Beer’s Law says that absorbance is equal to molar absorptivity times the thickness of the sample times the concentration of the sample. Beer’s law also states that conformity of a . . .
Dr. Joseph N. Bartlett
Introduction Enthalpy of hydration is the energy change for converting 1 mol of an anhydrous substance to 1 mol of the hydrated substance. In order to find this number, it is necessary to first calculate the enthalpy of dissolution for each substance separately, and then find the different between the two. . . .
Introduction One gram of water takes 4.184 joules of energy to increase its temperature 1 ºC. This is the most energy any substance takes to raise its temperature 1 ºC. In contrast to taking the most energy to raise its temperature 1 ºC, this means that it also takes the longest to cool down. This means . . .
Introduction Acids have a pH between 0 and 7, while bases have a pH between 7 and 14. A solution with a pH of 7 is said to be neutral; it is neither an acid nor a base. When given an acidic solution, it is possible add basic solution in order to neutralize it. To tell if the solution has been neutralized, . . .
Introduction When two aqueous solutions are mixed together, they often react chemically and form products. The chemical reaction may be visible as a change in color from the reactants to the products, the release of gas in the product, or the formation of a precipitate. A precipitate forms when one of the . . .
Introduction For this lab, seven small experiments were performed. First, solid Mg was combined with a HCl solution. The reactants started to bubble and give off a colorless gas was given all while the Mg was dissolving. Next a Pb(NO3)2 solution was mixed with a KI solution. These two clear, colorless . . .
Introduction Salts are substances that have the property of readily allowing water molecules to attach themselves to its crystalline structure. The water molecules that combine with the salt can result from exposure to humid conditions. When a substance becomes saturated with water, it is said to be . . .
Introduction When given an unknown substance, there are only a few ways to determine what it is. One way is to measure its density at a given temperature. Any pure substance has a specific density at a specific temperature. Density is defined as being equal to an object’s mass divided by its volume. The task . . .